Category: Uncategorized

Athletics Coaches Survey

This survey was designed to collect data on how Italian Athletics coaches see various aspects of coaching as well as how they find information/learn and develop their knowledge. The data collection in Italy was completed last year. I would like to experiment the survey with coaches around the World and want to make sure everyone can see the outcomes as data come in. For this reasons, I have designed a simple dashboard with Tableau which is linked to the google spreadsheet and updates itself as soon as somebody fills in the questionnaire.

The questionnaire is available here. If you are a coach in Athletics, make sure you fill it in and if you have colleagues/friends interested, pass them the link.

You can also fill it in from this page

In the meantime, some data are available here:
Athletics Coaches and Testing

New article on strength training in the elderly


In 2013 I was kindly invited by my colleague Dr. Urs Granacher in Potsdam to give a talk to his institution about science in sport. During my stay we discussed about many aspects of sports science and spent a lot of time talking about bilateral deficit and the fact that there was not much research on assessing it in various populations and also on the effectiveness of various training interventions on this interesting neuromuscular phenomenon. In particular, I was concerned with the amount of training prescriptions characterised by exercises involving two limbs, while most movements are performed with one limb. Also, we discussed how this was relevant for the elderly, as the risk of falls is large for older people and falls occur normally when most of the weight is supported by one leg.

Discussions moved to actions, and the project has been now published on Plos One. The abstract is below and if you want to read the article you can click on the image.


The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p < .001; d = 2.61–3.37) and in measures of BLD (p < .001; d = 2.04). We also found significant increases in uni- and bilateral MIF after resistance training (all p < .001, d = 1.8-5.7) and balance training (all p < .05, d = 1.3-3.2). In addition, BLD decreased following resistance (p < .001, d = 3.4) and balance training (p < .001, d = 2.6). It can be concluded that both training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults.

Excellent Article on Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training

I came across this wonderful article of and 
A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance, which we henceforth call “performance modeling,” is one such tool. Two models, the critical power (CP) model and the Banister impulse-response (IR) model, offer complementary information. The CP model describes the relationship between work rates and the durations for which an individual can sustain them during constant-work-rate or intermittent exercise. The IR model describes the dynamics by which an individual’s performance capacity changes over time as a function of training. Both models elegantly abstract the underlying physiology, and both can accurately fit performance data, such that educating exercise practitioners in the science of performance modeling offers both pedagogical and practical benefits. In addition, performance modeling offers an avenue for introducing mathematical modeling skills to exercise physiology researchers. A principal limitation to the adoption of performance modeling is a lack of education. The goal of this report is therefore to encourage educators of exercise physiology practitioners and researchers to incorporate the science of performance modeling in their curricula and to serve as a resource to support this effort. The resources include a comprehensive review of the concepts associated with the development and use of the models, software to enable hands-on computer exercises, and strategies for teaching the models to different audiences.

This paper was published on Advances in Physiology Education which is a relatively new journal of the American Physiological Society.
Here is the full reference: 
Clarke DC, Skiba PF. Rationale and resources for teaching the mathematical modeling of athletic training and performance. Adv Physiol Educ. 37(2):134-52. June 2013.

If you want to read more about Dr. Skiba’s work you can go here.
Great paper and most of all great supplementary material, excellent job @DrPhilipSkiba!